Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (1935)

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Einstein, Albert; Podolsky, Boris and Rosen, Nathan. (1935) Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be Considered Complete? Physical Review 47, 777-780.

Title Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be Considered Complete?
Resource Type journal article
Author(s) Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky, Nathan Rosen
Year 1935
Journal Physical Review
Volume 47
Pages 777-780

Abstract

In a complete theory there is an element corresponding to each element of reality. A sufficient condition for the reality of a physical quantity is the possibility of predicting it with certainty, without disturbing the system. In quantum mechanics in the case of two physical quantities described by non-commuting operators, the knowledge of one precludes the knowledge of the other. Then either (1)the description of reality given by the wave function in quantum mechanics is not complete or (2) these two quantities cannot have simultaneous reality. Consideration of the problem of making predictions concerning a system on the basis of measurements made on another system that had previously interacted with it leads to the result that if (1) is false then (2) is also false. One is thus led to conclude that the description of reality as given by a wave function is not complete.

Contributors

Hakob Barseghyan (4.0%), Paul Patton (96.0%)