Paul Patton

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Paul Patton (born 31 October 1957) is an American scientonomist and editor of the Encyclopedia of Scientonomy notable for his reformulation of the second law of scientific change and his contributions to the formation of the scientonomy community.


Suggested Modifications

Here are all the modifications suggested by Patton:

  • Sciento-2017-0004: Accept the reformulation of the second law which explicitly links theory assessment outcomes with theory acceptance/unacceptance. To that end, accept three new definitions for theory assessment outcomes (satisfied, not satisfied, and inconclusive) as well as the new ontology of theory assessment outcomes, and accept the new definition of employed method. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton, Nicholas Overgaard and Hakob Barseghyan on 5 February 2017.1 The modification was accepted on 29 November 2017. The new formulation of the law became accepted as a result of a communal consensus. It was noted by the commentators that the "modification provides a much improved formulation of the 2nd law".c1 It was noted that the new formulation "decouples the method from acceptance outcomes" and "is needed to avoid a contradiction for cases where assessment by the method is inconclusive, but the theory is accepted".c2 It was agreed that the new law eliminates two of the major flaws of the previous formulation. First, it clearly states the relations between different assessment outcomes and the actual theory acceptance/unacceptance. Second, it clearly forbids certain conceivable courses of events and, thus, doesn't sounds like a tautology.c3
  • Sciento-2017-0005: Accept that the new second law is not a tautology. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton, Nicholas Overgaard and Hakob Barseghyan on 5 February 2017.1 The modification was accepted on 29 November 2017. The modification was deemed uncontroversial by the community. Its acceptance was contingent upon the acceptance of the new formulation of the second law suggested by Patton, Overgaard and Barseghyan. Once the new second law became accepted, it was also accepted that the new law is not a tautology. There was no notable discussion concerning this modification.
  • Sciento-2017-0006: Accept the following set of inferences of theory assessment outcomes from the acceptance or unacceptance of a single contender and two contenders. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton, Nicholas Overgaard and Hakob Barseghyan on 5 February 2017.1 The modification is currently being evaluated; a verdict is pending.
  • Sciento-2019-0014: Accept the new definition of epistemic agent as an agent capable of taking epistemic stances towards epistemic elements. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton on 26 December 2019.2 The modification is currently being evaluated; a verdict is pending.
  • Sciento-2019-0015: Accept that there are two types of epistemic agents – individual and communal. Also accept the question of applicability of the laws of scientific change to individuals as a legitimate topic of scientonomic inquiry. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton on 26 December 2019.2 The modification is currently being evaluated; a verdict is pending.
  • Sciento-2019-0016: Accept the definition of epistemic tool, stating that a physical object or system is an epistemic tool for an epistemic agent, when there is a procedure by which the tool can provide an acceptable source of knowledge for answering some question under the employed method of that agent. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton on 26 December 2019.2 The modification is currently being evaluated; a verdict is pending.
  • Sciento-2019-0017: Accept the definitions of authority delegation, and its subtypes, that generalize the currently accepted definitions to apply to all epistemic agents, rather than only communities. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton on 26 December 2019.2 The modification is currently being evaluated; a verdict is pending.
  • Sciento-2019-0018: Accept that the relationship of tool reliance can obtain between epistemic agents and epistemic tools. Also accept the definition of tool reliance, which states that an epistemic agent is said to rely on an epistemic tool when there is a procedure through which the tool can provide an acceptable source of knowledge for answering some question under the employed method of that agent. The modification was suggested to Scientonomy community by Paul Patton on 26 December 2019.2 The modification is currently being evaluated; a verdict is pending.

Theories

The following table contains all the theories formulated by Patton:
TitleTypeFormulationFormulated In
Scientonomic Workflow (Barseghyan et al.-2016)NormativeScientonomic knowledge is best advanced by:
  1. documenting the body of accepted communal knowledge knowledge in an online encyclopedia;
  2. scrutinizing this accepted knowledge, identifying its flaws, and formulating open questions at seminars, conferences, publications, and other in-person or online formats;
  3. publishing journal articles that propose modifications to our current knowledge and documenting these suggestions;
  4. evaluating the suggested modifications with the goal of reaching a communal consensus and changing the respective encyclopedia pages when a verdict is reached.
2016
Employed Method (Patton-Overgaard-Barseghyan-2017)DefinitionA method is said to be employed if its requirements constitute the actual expectations of the community.2017
Theory Assessment Outcomes (Patton-Overgaard-Barseghyan-2017)DescriptiveThe possible outcomes of theory assessment are satisfied, not satisfied, and inconclusive.2017
Outcome Satisfied (Patton-Overgaard-Barseghyan-2017)DefinitionThe theory is deemed to conclusively meet the requirements of the method employed at the time.2017
Inferring Theory Assessment Outcomes from Acceptance/Unacceptance of a Single Contender (Patton-Overgaard-Barseghyan-2017)DescriptiveThere is a series of inferences that can be made from the acceptance or unacceptance of a single contender.2017
Outcome Not Satisfied (Patton-Overgaard-Barseghyan-2017)DefinitionThe theory is deemed to conclusively not meet the requirements of the method employed at the time.2017
Inferring Theory Assessment Outcomes from Acceptance/Unacceptance of Two Contenders (Patton-Overgaard-Barseghyan-2017)DescriptiveThere is a series of inferences that can be made from the acceptance or unacceptance of two contender theories.2017
Outcome Inconclusive (Patton-Overgaard-Barseghyan-2017)DefinitionIt is unclear whether or not the requirements of the method employed at the time are met.2017
The Second Law (Patton-Overgaard-Barseghyan-2017)DescriptiveIf a theory satisfies the acceptance criteria of the method employed at the time, it becomes accepted into the mosaic; if it does not, it remains unaccepted; if assessment is inconclusive, the theory can be accepted or not accepted.2017
The Second Law is Not a Tautology (Patton-Overgaard-Barseghyan-2017)DescriptiveThe second law is not a tautology.2017
Mutual Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionEpistemic agents A and B are said to be in a relationship of mutual authority delegation iff A delegates authority over question x to B, and B delegates authority over question y to A.2019
Epistemic Agents - Communities and Individuals (Patton-2019)DescriptiveThere are two types of epistemic agents – individual and communal.2019
Singular Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionEpistemic agent A is said to engage in a relationship of singular authority delegation over question x iff A delegates authority over question x to exactly one epistemic agent.2019
Epistemic Agent (Patton-2019)DefinitionAn agent capable of taking epistemic stances towards epistemic elements.2019
Hierarchical Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionA sub-type of multiple authority delegation where different epistemic agents are delegated different degrees of authority over question x.2019
Epistemic Tool (Patton-2019)DefinitionA physical object or system is an epistemic tool for an epistemic agent iff there is a procedure by which the tool can provide an acceptable source of knowledge for answering some question under the employed method of that agent.2019
Non-Hierarchical Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionA sub-type of multiple authority delegation where different epistemic agents are delegated the same degree of authority over question x.2019
Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionEpistemic agent A is said to be delegating authority over question x to epistemic agent B iff (1) agent A accepts that agent B is an expert on question x and (2) agent A will accept a theory answering question x if agent B says so.2019
Tool Reliance (Patton-2019)DefinitionAn epistemic agent is said to rely on an epistemic tool iff there is a procedure through which the tool can provide an acceptable source of knowledge for answering some question under the employed method of that agent.2019
Multiple Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionEpistemic agent A is said to engage in a relationship of multiple authority delegation over question x iff A delegates authority over question x to more than one epistemic agent.2019
One-sided Authority Delegation (Patton-2019)DefinitionEpistemic agents A and B are said to be in a relationship of one-sided authority delegation iff A delegates authority over question x to B, but B doesn’t delegate any authority to A.2019

Questions

Here are all the questions formulated by Patton:

Publications

Here are the works of Patton included in the bibliographic records of this encyclopedia:

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References

  1. a b c  Patton, Paul; Overgaard, Nicholas and Barseghyan, Hakob. (2017) Reformulating the Second Law. Scientonomy 1, 29-39. Retrieved from https://www.scientojournal.com/index.php/scientonomy/article/view/27158.
  2. a b c d e  Patton, Paul. (2019) Epistemic Tools and Epistemic Agents in Scientonomy. Scientonomy 3, 63-89. Retrieved from https://scientojournal.com/index.php/scientonomy/article/view/33621.

Contributors

Hakob Barseghyan (100.0%)